At the end of the article, you will be able to describe- What is An Ion -Cation s and Anions -[Positively And Negatively] Charged Ion. Let’s start Discussing one by one.
We all know that everything around us is made up of tiny particles known as atoms. In the center of an atom, there is a nucleus. The nucleus contains protons and neutrons. Remember that,
- Protons are positively charged whereas neutrons don’t have any charge.
- Electrons are negatively charged. They keep moving around the nucleus.
Must Read: Electrons protons and neutrons.
What is an Ion – Definition
When an atom loses or gains electrons, we say atom changes into an ion. -OR-
An ion is a charged particle because it contains an unequal number of protons and electrons. So, an ion is an atom that has either lost or gained electrons.
Basically, Every atom contains an equal number of negative electrons and positive protons. These protons and electrons balance charge in the atom and make it neutral. If we look closely, protons and neutrons normally remain fixed in the nucleus. But sometimes loosely held electrons leave due to some cause. They can run away from the atom.
Examples of Ions
When an atom loses its neutrality on leaving or gaining an electron the following question arises.
What are Cations and Anions?
There are two types of Ion
- Cation and
1. If an atom has less electron than normal it gets a positive charge.We call as a cation. It is because the number of negative electrons becomes less than the number of positive protons.
2. If an atom has more electrons than normal atom then it gets a negative charge. We call as an anion.The reason is the number of negative electrons becomes more than the number of positive protons.
Positively Charged Ion & Negatively Charged Ion
It is only the electrons which can transfer from one atom to another atom in the formation of an ion.
- Positive Charge is shown by plus(+) sign.
- Negative Charge is shown by minus(-) sign.
- The charge of one proton is equal in strength to the charge of one electron.
The atom itself has no overall charge it is neutral. When the numbers of protons in an atom equal the number of electrons. The positive charge of the proton and negative charge of electron cancel each other.
Why Atom lose electron
Atoms lose electrons to form a bond (molecule).They form a bond to achieve:
A. Minimum Energy and
How are Cation (s) Formed – Positive Ion
A positively charged is also known as a cation. A cation is formed by the loss of one or more electrons by an atom.
For example, Magnesium loses its two electrons to form Magnesium ion which is a cation. Therefore cation contains fewer electrons than the normal atom.
i. If an atom loses one electron, then cation has one positive charge.
ii.If an atom loses two electrons, the cation formed has two positively charges.
iii.if the atom loses three electrons, then cation has three positively charges.
It is usually not possible to remove more than three electrons. A very high energy required for this purpose.
Note: The electrons lost by a metal atom during the formation of the cation are accepted by a non-metal atom which then turns into the anion or Negative Ion.
This is all about the basics of Cations and Anions, [Positively And Negatively] Charged Ion.