The brain has three mains parts visible externally, 1. cerebrum. 2. cerebellum and 3. medulla oblongata.
What is the Cerebrum?
Cerebrum consists of two cerebral hemispheres each comprising the four lobes: frontal, occipital, parietal, temporal. It initiates voluntary moments. It forms 80% of the weight of the brain.
It is the largest part of the human brain and it’s involved in intellectual functions such as memory, attention, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness. So, these are the things that essentially make human beings.
Structure of Cerebrum
(Cerebrum: brain) It is the largest portion of the brain.
- It is divided into two (right and left) halves called cerebral hemispheres (see diagram). Their outer surface is highly convoluted (meaning – extremely difficult) with ridges (narrow hilltop) and grooves.
- Each cerebral hemisphere is hollow internally and the walls have two regions – an outer (cortex) and an inner portion (medulla).
- The outer portion (cortex) of the cerebrum contains cell bodies of the neurons and, being greyish in colour, is called the grey matter.
- It is the layer of grey matter which is folded to form the convolutions. The folds are called gyri and the grooves are called sulci (creases). Such a System increases surface area to accommodate more nerve cells.
- It is believed that the higher number of convolutions in the human brain is due to the larger number of brain (nerve) cells and hence greater intelligence.
- The inner portion of the cerebrum consists of “white matter’ which mainly contains the axons (nerve fibres) of the neurons.
- Corpus callosum (“hard body”) is a sheet of fibres connecting the two cerebral hemispheres (see diagram). Its function is to transfer information from one hemisphere to the other.
What does the Cerebrum do?
The highly developed cortex (grey matter) which is an inner part enables us to think, reason out, invent, plan and memorise. Overall, It is the seat of intelligence, consciousness and will-power. It controls all voluntary actions. (following diagram) shows some major functions associated with the different areas of the brain.
What is generally called the subconscious or unconscious mind is also located in the cerebrum. Many past experiences are covered up by the more recent impressions which dominate conscious activity.
In actions dreams or when hypnotised and skilfully death. questioned, past experiences may be recalled.
What is the Function of the Cerebrum?
Let’s take a look at the four lobes of the cerebrum. We have the
- The Frontal Lobe.
- The Parietal Lobe.
- The occipital lobe and
- The temporal lobe.
Let’s look at what they’re involved in.
Function of Frontal Lobe
The frontal lobe is involved in processes such as reasoning, planning, speech, movement, emotions, and problem-solving. So, these are the types of things that are happening in the frontal lobe.
Function of Parietal Lobe
Parietal lobe which is involved in the movement, orientation, recognition, and perception.
Function of Occipital Lobe
The occipital lobe which is involved in visual processing. This is why sometimes if you get hit to the back of the head you see stars and so on. That has to do its visual processing.
Function of Temporal Lobe
Temporal lobe which deals with auditory perception, memory, and speech. So, as you can see there are a bunch of intellectual functions that are being controlled by the cerebrum of the brain.
This is all about the basics of what is the Cerebrum, What does the Cerebrum do, Structure, Function, Frontal Lobe, Parietal, occipital, temporal lobe.