What is Polar Covalent Bond -[ Definition, Examples] Difference – [ Polar and Nonpolar]

At the end of the article, you will able to describe- What is polar covalent bond, definition, examples, difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds. Let’s start discussing one by one.

What is Polar Covalent Bond – Definition

When the covalent bond between different atoms, combine such a way that the shared pair of electron shift towards the atom of a higher electronegative element.The bond thus formed is a polar covalent bond.

In Simple words, the bond is made between two atoms, in which there is a large difference in electronegativity. The electronegativity difference disturbs the distribution of a pair of electrons between the two atoms. The electron density shifts towards the element which is more electronegative.

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Difference Between polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds

We have studied the Lewis concept which relates with the covalent bond. When a bond formed within molecules. Then a molecule may have one of these two characteristics:-

  • Polar. 
  • Non-Polar.

NonPolar

  • This type of covalent bond made between two similar atoms, for example, H2, O2, Cl2, N2  or F2.
  • A pair of shared electrons is attracted equally by two atoms.
  • As a result, the electrons remain at center between two equal nuclei.
  • This type of bond is term as nonpolar bond.

No polarity developed on atoms because the shared pair of electrons is exactly at center that is equal distance to both of them

Polar

  • This type of covalent bond is the case of a heteronuclear molecule (bond between different atoms).
  • Example HF, the shared electron pairs between the two atoms are more displaced towards the fluorine because the electronegativity of fluorine is more than hydrogen.
  • This result the two atoms acquire negative and partial positive charge having the same magnitude.
  • As a result, the bond is polar.What is Polar Covalent Bond -[ Definition, Examples] Difference - [ Polar and Nonpolar]

Note:

  • And how much magnitude of positive or negative charge develops between atoms is measured by dipole moment.
  • The molecule with the greater difference of electronegativity more will be the polarity of the bond.
  • There is no limit of polar bond examples.The explanation of all polar bond is same as above.

Hundred percent ionic existence or covalent bond represents an ideal condition. Actually, there is no bond or a compound is either completely covalent or ionic. Even in a case of a nonpolar bond between two atoms, there exists some ionic character.

Polar Covalent Bond Examples

The cross represents positive end and arrowhead represents the negative end. Arrow symbolizes the direction of the shift of electron density.

1.Water (H2O)

What is Polar Covalent Bond -[ Definition, Examples] Difference - [ Polar and Nonpolar]

2.Beryllium fluoride(BeF2 )  

The polarity in case of BeF2 is zero. Opposite directions cancel the effect of each other

What is Polar Covalent Bond -[ Definition, Examples] Difference - [ Polar and Nonpolar]

3.Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) 

What is Polar Covalent Bond -[ Definition, Examples] Difference - [ Polar and Nonpolar]

4.Ammonia (NH3

What is Polar Covalent Bond -[ Definition, Examples] Difference - [ Polar and Nonpolar]

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