The periodic table Groups and periods helps us to predict the chemical properties of elements having similar behaviour. So, long form of the periodic table has many important features. In a periodic table, all the elements have been arranged in the increasing order of their atomic numbers. It means the arrangements are based upon modern periodic law.
This arrangement consists of:
- 18 vertical columns called groups or families.
- 7 horizontal rows called periods or series.
- Four blocks namely s, p, d and f blocks.
Periodic Table Groups Names
|A vertical column from top to bottom in the periodic table is known as a group.|
According to the latest recommendation of the International Union of Pure and Applied chemistry (IUPAC), the periodic table groups are numbered from 1 to 18. All the members of a particular group have similar outer shell configuration.
- The elements constituting groups 1, 2, 13, to 18 are normal or representative elements.
- Group 1 elements are named Alkali metals.
- Group 2 elements are Alkali Earth Metals.
- The elements of group 13 are Aluminium family.
- Group 16 name is Chalcogens.
- Elements belong to Group 17 is halogen Group.
- The elements of group 18 (zero) are also known as noble or inert gases.
- The elements of groups 3 to 12 are transition elements.
- In group 3 there are 14 elements just after lanthanum (Z = 57) and another 14 elements just after actinium (Z = 89) which are placed at the bottom of the periodic table. These are known as lanthanides and actinides respectively and inner- transition elements collectively.
Periodic Table with Groups
|Elements||Nature||Position in Modern Periodic Table|
|p-block elements||Metalloids & non-metals but some of them are metals also.||
Periodic Table Periods and Groups
The division of periodic table into groups and period brings out the similarity and differences and trends in chemical and physical properties of these elements.
|The horizontal row from left to the right in the periodic table is term as a period.|
There are seven periods, each period (except 1st period which starts from hydrogen) starts from alkali metals and ends with the noble gas. In other words, each period starts with a new principal quantum number (n). The filling of electrons in orbitals of elements is as per Aufbau principle.
18 vertical columns in the long form of the periodic table previously constituting 16 groups or families and numbered as IA, IIA, IIIB, IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB, VIII, (consisting of three vertical columns of three elements each) IB, IIB, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA and zero group are now renumbered.
- Inert gases or noble gases are placed in zero group.
- The group number is equal to the valency of an element in a group.
- The 4f and 5 f transition series of elements do not find a proper place in the main table and are placed separately.It is at the bottom of the periodic table in two separate rows of 14 elements.They are known as inner-transition elements.
Periodic Table Metals
There exist different types of metals in a periodic table and are divided into blocks given below:
- The first two periodic table Groups called as s block elements.
- They are present on the left corner of the periodic table.
- They are soft metals with low melting points and boiling points.
- Alkali metals. [Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr]
- Alkaline earth metals. [Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra]
- They Belong to group 13 to 17 in the periodic table.
- p block metals present on the right side of the periodic table.
- They are less metallic than s block elements.
- d block belong to group 3rd to 12th.
- It’s another name is transitions metal elements.
- They are hard metals with high melting points and boiling points.
- They show magnetic properties.
- They are located at the bottom of the periodic table.
- They are also termed as Inner transition metal elements.
- f block metals belonging to period 5th and 3rd group are named as lanthanide metals.
- Metals belonging to 6th period and 3rd group are actinide metals.
This is for the Periodic Table Groups.
For the depth knowledge of Groups read the following subtopics:
- Properties Alkali Earth Metals.
- Properties Alkali Metals.
- D and F Block Elements.
- Properties of F block elements.
- Properties of D block elements.
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