Organic Chemistry Functional Groups

IUPAC System: In organic chemistry functional groups, any molecular structure has only one IUPAC name and only one molecule structure associated with it.

Rule For Naming Organic Chemistry Functional Groups

IUPAC name consist of three parts:

  • Root Word
  • Suffix
  • Prefix
  1. Root Word
Length of Chain Root word Length of Chain Root word
C1 Meth- C11 Undec-
C2 Eth- C12 Dodec-
C2 Prop- C13 Tridec-
C4 But- C14 Tetradec-
C5 Pent- C15 Pentadec-
C6 Hex- C16 Hexadec-
C10 Dec- C50 Pentacont-

2. Suffix: There are two types of suffixes.

  • Primary suffix: Primary suffix specifies the whether a compound is saturated or unsaturated.
  • Secondary suffix: Secondary Suffix indicates the presence of a functional group.

Primary Suffix

Nature of carbon Bond Primary suffix Generic name
Saturated (C – C) -ane Alkane
Unsaturated (C = C) with one double bond -ene Alkene
Unsaturated (C ≡ C) with one triple bond -yne Alkyne
 Two C = C bonds -diene Akladiene
Two C ≡ C bonds -diyne Alkadiyne
Unsaturated with three C = C bonds -triene Alkatriene

Secondary suffix

Organic Chemistry Functional Groups

When an organic compound contains two or more different functional groups, then one of these is elected as principal functional group while the others are called secondary functional groups and are treated as substituent, The choice of the principal functional group is made on the basis of the following

Order of preferences of Functional Groups

Class Formula Suffix prefix
Carboxylic acid -COOH -oic acid Carboxy
Sulphonic -SO3H Sulphonic acid Sulpho
Acid ahydrides -oic anhydride  –
Esters -COOR Alkyl alkanoate Alkoxycarbonyl
Acyl halides -COX -oyl halide Haloalkanoyl
Amides -CONH2 -amide Carbamoyl
Nitriles – C ≡ N Nitrile Cyano
Aldehydes -CHO -al Formyl
Ketones >C=O -one Oxo
Alcohols -OH -ol Hydroxy
Amines -NH2 Amine Amino
Ethers – O – Alkoxy alkane -oxy
Alkenes C=C -ene Alkenyl
Alkynes – C ≡ C – -yne Alkynyl
Halides -X Halo
Nitro -NO2 Nitro
Alkanes C – C -ane Alkyl
Benzene Benzene Phenyl

3. Prefix

The remaining functional groups such as halo (-X), nitroso (-NO), nitro (-NO2), alkoxy (-OR) are treated as substituent groups or simply as prefixes. Before going further make sure you have learned preferences and table discussed before.This will help you.

Arrangement of Prefixes, Root Word, and Suffixes

This arrangement should be followed while writing the name of the organic compound.

Prefix (es) + Root word + Primary suffix + Secondary suffix

Organic Chemistry Functional Groups

Examples

These given examples help you for better understanding and practice.

Organic Chemistry Functional Groups

 

Organic Chemistry Functional Groups

 

Organic Chemistry Functional Groups

 

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