What is an Ionic Bond- [Definition,Properties,Examples]

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What is an Ionic Bond – Definition

An ionic bond is formed when there is complete the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another. Atoms may attain stable electronic configuration in three different ways by losing or gaining electrons by sharing electrons.  Every Ionic bond consists of ions. These ions held together by strong electrostatic forces form an ionic compound. We can call ionic bond also as electrovalent bond.

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Ionic Bond Properties

In each and every example, one of the species is cation and the other is an anion. To form a cation from a neutral atom energy must provide to remove the electron. We call this energy as ionization energy. Now, it is obvious that lower the ionization energy of the element the easier it is to remove the electron. To form the anion, an electron adds up to a neutral atom. During this process, energy is released. This energy released called as electron affinity.

Must Read Comparison of – Ionic and Covalent Bond Properties.

Important Ionic Bond Property

Ionic bond possible only when one of the species must have low ionization energy and the other should have high electron affinity.

Ionic Bond Examples 

NaCl bond

Formation of sodium chloride (NaCl). Sodium atom (Z=11) has one valence electron(2, 8, 1). Similarly, chlorine atom (Z=17) has a 7 valence electron (2,8,7). Sodium atom loses its only valence electron and changes  Na+ ion(cation). This electron accepts by chlorine atom which changes to a Cl- ion(anion).Both of these ions are mutually attracted to form NaCl molecule.

Ionic Bond Examples

Na +  ion has the configuration of Ne while Cl ion represents the configuration of Ar. Both are inert gas atoms.These the atoms take part in chemical combination or bond formation in order to complete the octet  ( 8 electrons in valence shell) and achieve the electronic configuration of the nearest noble gas atom.

Formation of calcium fluoride

(CaF2 ).Calcium atom (Z=20) has two valence electron (2,8,8,2). while fluorine atom (Z=9) has seven valence electron in its valence shell (2,7).Now, Ca atom wants to get rid of both valence electrons but each fluorine atom is in the position to take up one electron only, This means that these electrons accept by two fluorine atoms as shown below.


Ca 2 + ion has electronic configuration of inert gas argon while F ion has the electronic configuration of neon.

Some Important Ionic Bond Examples

LiF – Lithium Fluoride
LiCl – Lithium Chloride
LiBr – Lithium Bromide
LiI – Lithium Iodide
K2S – Potassium Sulfide
MgBr2 – Magnesium Bromide
MgI2 – Magnesium Iodide
CaF2 – Calcium Fluoride
CaCl2 – Calcium Chloride
CaBr2 – Calcium Bromide
CaI2 – Calcium Iodide
BaF2 – Barium Fluoride
FeCl2 – Iron(II) Chloride
FeBr2 – Iron(II) Bromide
FeI2 – Iron(II) Iodide

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