Heart Parts and Functions | Heart Structure and Function

At the end of the article, you will able to describe – heart parts and functions, heart structure and function. Let’s start discussing it.

The heart is right in the center between the two lungs and above the diaphragm. The narrow end of the roughly triangular heart is pointed to the left side and during working, the contraction of the heart is most powerful at this end giving a feeling that the heart is on the left side.

Heart Parts and Functions

The heart is protected by a double-walled membranous covering called pericardium. It contains lubricating pericardial fluid which reduces the friction during the heartbeat and protects it from mechanical injuries.heart parts and functions, heart structure and function

Parts and Functions

The heart consists of four chambers –

  • Two upper atria (sing. atrium) and
  • Two lower ventricles.

The atria (also called auricles) have thinner walls because their major function is to receive blood from the body and pump it into the very next ventricles. The ventricles have thick muscular walls because they have to pump blood to long distances.

  • The right ventricle pumps blood only up to the lungs for oxygenation.
  • But the left ventricle pumps it up to the farthest points in the body, such as, up to the toes in the feet or up to the brain against gravity, and so its walls are thicker.

Heart Structure and Function

We will discuss the heart structure and Function along with the movement of blood.

Blood Vessels Entering The Heart

The right atrium receives two large vessels –

  • Anterior vena cava and
  • Posterior vena cava.

Anterior vena cava

Anterior vena cava (also called superior vena cava or precaval) brings deoxygenated blood from the anterior or upper part of the body including head, chest and arms.

Posterior vena cava

Posterior (or inferior) vena cava brings blood from the posterior or the lower region of the body including abdomen and legs.

The left atrium receives 4 pulmonary veins (two from each lung). The pulmonary veins bring oxygenated blood.

Blood Vessels Leaving The  Heart

Arising from the ventricles are two large blood vessels.

Pulmonary Artery

The pulmonary artery arises from the right ventricle and carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs for oxygenation.

Aorta

The aorta arises from the left ventricle and carries oxygenated blood to supply it to all parts of the body.

Two coronary arteries (right and left) arising from the base of the aorta. These supply the heart muscles. When there is a blockage in any coronary artery or in any one or more of their branches there is a “deadening” of the corresponding area of heart muscles leading to “myocardial infarction” or a heart attack in popular language.

Read –Parts of Cerebrum.

This is all about the basics of heart parts and functions, heart structure and function.