Difference Between Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Cells

At the end of the article, you will able to describe and distinguish the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Let’s start discussing one by one.

Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Cells are the basic unit of all life on earth. All living things are made of cells. All cells contain cytoplasm and a cell membrane. There are two types of cells –

  • Prokaryotes
  • Eukaryotes

Difference Between Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Cells

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells differ in their structure. The major difference exhibited by these cells are mentioned below.


  • Prokaryotes are usually small simple cells. Examples would be bacteria and microbes.
  • A prokaryotic cell is a relatively simple small cell ranging from 1 to 2 µ (micrometers). 
  • These cells possess rigid cell wall which prevents rupture of the cell.
  • Membrane-bound organelles are absent in a prokaryotic cell.
  • Genetic material is not enclosed in the nuclear membrane.
  • Genetic material is enclosed in a well-defined nuclear membrane in a prokaryotic cell.
  • The Genetic material consists of single circular or endless double helical molecule of DNA.


  • In eukaryotes in contrast to prokaryotes are usually a little bit larger and more complex.
  • Eukaryotic cells are complex large cells ranging from 10 to 100  µ (micrometers).
  • There is no rigid cell wall in vertebrates, but in plants cell wall is present.
  • Membrane-bound organelles are present in a eukaryotic cell.
  • Genetic material is enclosed in a well-defined nuclear membrane.
  • There are many chromosomes formed of linear, open-ended double helical molecules of DNA.

Also, Read – Animal Cell.

Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Mobile User – See Table:





Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Cells
DNA remains uncombined with proteins. DNA remains combined with proteins.
Fuelgen -stain will not stain the chromosome Fuelgen -stain will stain the chromosome.
Nucleolus is absent. Nucleolus is present, rich in RNA.
Centriole is absent. Centriole is present in animal cells but absent in plant cells.
Cell division is done by binary fission. Mitosis and Meiosis are absent. Division of cells takes place through Mitosis and Meiosis.
Golgi Bodies are absent. Golgi Bodies are present.
Endoplasmic Reticulum is absent. Endoplasmic Reticulum is present.
Ribosomes are spread in the cytoplasm. Ribosomes present in both cytoplasm as well as on the surface of Endoplasm reticulum.
Plastids are absent. Plastids are present in plants but absent in an animal cell except few.
Lysosomes are absent. Lysosomes are present in animal and meristematic cell of a plant.

So, the main thing that you’ll be looking for is the nucleus. This is all about the basic difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.