What is a Covalent Bond, Definition, Covalent Bond Examples

At the end of the article, you will able to describe – What is a covalent bond, Definition, covalent bond examples. Let’s start discussing one by one.

What is a Covalent Bond – Definition

A chemical bond that is formed between combining atoms by mutual sharing of one or pairs of electrons is called a Covalent bond. The compound formed due to this bond is called a covalent compound. 

Condition for formation of the Covalent Bond

  • Both atoms should have four or more electrons in their outermost Shells, i.e., non-metals (exceptions are H. Be B, Al, etc.).
  • Both the atoms should have high electron affinity.
  • Both the atoms should have high ionization energy.
  • The participating atoms should have high electronegativity (may or may not similar).
  • Non-metal combines with another non-metal.

These are the necessary conditions for bond formation. Before going for examples one must know the condition of the bond.

Must Read:

Covalent Bond Examples

The atoms of non-metals usually have 5, 6 or 7 electrons in their outermost shell (except carbon which has 4 and hydrogen which has just 1 electron in the Outermost shell). The atoms of such elements do not favor the loss of its electrons due to high energy considerations and thus the transfer of electrons is not possible.Therefore, atoms can complete its octet by mutually sharing one or more pairs of electrons. Each atom contributes an equal number of electrons. So, whenever non-metal combines with another non-metal, the sharing of electrons take place between the atoms and a covalent bond is form. The above explanation is applicable to all covalent bond examples.

Must Read: Ionic Bond Examples.

Hydrogen Molecule (H2)

A hydrogen atom has one electron in its only shell. It needs one more electron to attain duplet. To meet this need, hydrogen atom shares its electron with another hydrogen atom. Thus, one electron each is contributed by the two atoms of hydrogen, and the resulting pair of electrons is mutually shared by both the atoms to form a hydrogen molecule.

[A Hydrogen molecule contains two atoms of hydrogen]

Chlorine Molecule(Cl2)

In this case both the chlorine atoms that is equals to (atomic no 17) have 7 valence electron and a short of one electron each.They share one electron pair which is an electron is contributed by both the atoms to achieve nearest noble gas configuration.

Nitrogen Molecule(N2)

  • Atomic Number = 7
  • Electronic Configuration= 2,5
  • Number of electrons required to Complete octet = 3
  • Bond =Triple Covalent Bond.

Two Nitrogen atoms combine together by the sharing of electrons to form a nitrogen molecule (N2) and a covalent bond is formed between the two nitrogen atoms. 

Water Molecule(H2O)

To attain the stable electronic configuration of the nearest noble gas, hydrogen needs one electron and oxygen needs two electrons.In the case of a water molecule, each of the two hydrogen atoms shares an electron pair with the oxygen atom such that hydrogen acquires a duplet configuration and oxygen an octet, resulting in the formation of two single covalent bonds.

Carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)

  • Atomic Number of Carbon = 5
  • Atomic Number of Chlorine = 17
  • Electronic Configuration of Carbon = 2,5
  • Electronic Configuration of Chlorine = 2,5
  • Number of electrons required to Complete octet Carbon = 4
  • Number of electrons required to Complete octet (each) Chlorine = 1
  • Bond =Single Covalent Bond.

Covalent Bond Examples

Ethyne (C2H2) 

Atoms can complete its octet by mutually sharing one or more pairs of electrons. Each atom contributes a number of electrons. So, whenever non-metal combines with another non-metal, the sharing of electrons take place between the atoms and a covalent bond is form.Covalent Bond Examples

7. Ethene (C2H4)Covalent Bond Examples

8. Carbon dioxide(CO2)

Carbon is a non-metal and chlorine is also a non-metal. When carbon combines with two oxygen to form Carbon dioxide (CO2sharing of electrons takes place between Carbon and oxygen atoms and a covalent bond is formed.Covalent Bond Examples

 

This is all about the basics of- What is a covalent bond, Definition, covalent bond examples. 

If you like feel free to share with others.