Covalent Bond Examples

A chemical bond that is formed between combining atoms by mutual sharing of one or pairs of electrons is called a Covalent bond. The compound formed due to this bond is called a covalent compound. 

Must Read:

Explanation For Covalent Bond Examples

The atoms of non-metals usually have 5, 6 or 7 electrons in their outermost shell (except carbon which has 4 and hydrogen which has just 1 electron in the Outermost shell). The atoms of such elements do not favor the loss of its electrons due to high energy considerations and thus the transfer of electrons is not possible.Therefore, atoms can complete its octet by mutually sharing one or more pairs of electrons. Each atom contributes an equal number of electrons. So, whenever non-metal combines with another non-metal, the sharing of electrons take place between the atoms and a covalent bond is form. The above explanation is applicable to all examples.

For example, hydrogen is a non-metal and chlorine is also a non-metal. When hydrogen combines with chlorine to form hydrogen chloride(HCL)  sharing of electrons takes place between hydrogen and chlorine atoms and a covalent bond is formed. Another exampleFor example, two chlorine atoms combine together by the sharing of electrons to form a chlorine molecule (Cl2) and a covalent bond is formed between the two chlorine atoms. Before going for examples one must know the condition of the bond.

Condition For Formation of the Bond

1.Both atoms should have four or more electrons in their outermost Shells, i.e., non-metals (exceptions are H. Be B, Al, etc.).

2. Both the atoms should have high electron affinity.

3.Both the atoms should have high ionization energy.

4.Both the atoms should have high electronegativity.

5. Non-metal combines with another non-metal.

These are the necessary Conditions for bond formation.

Important  Covalent Bond Examples

Must Read: Ionic Bond Examples

1. Hydrogen Molecule

A hydrogen atom has one electron in its only shell. It needs one more electron to attain duplet. To meet this need, hydrogen atom shares its electron with another hydrogen atom. Thus, one electron each is contributed by the two atoms of hydrogen, and the resulting pair of electrons is mutually shared by both the atoms to form a hydrogen molecule.

Formation of a hydrogen molecule

Before Combination

Covalent Bond Examples

Electron dot structure

Covalent Bond Examples

After Combination

Covalent Bond Examples

[A Hydrogen molecule contains two atoms of hydrogen]

2. Chlorine Molecule(Cl2)

In this case both the chlorine atoms that is equals to (atomic no 17) have 7 valence electron and a short of one electron each.They share one electron pair which is an electron is contributed by both the atoms to achieve nearest noble gas configuration.

Formation of a Chlorine molecule

Before Combination

Covalent Bond Examples

Electron dot structure

Covalent Bond Examples

After Combination

Covalent Bond Examples

3. Nitrogen Molecule(N2)

Before Combination

Covalent Bond Examples

Electron dot structure

Covalent Bond Examples

After Combination

Covalent Bond Examples

4. Water Molecule(H2O)

Covalent Bond Examples

To attain the stable electronic configuration of the nearest noble gas, hydrogen needs one electron and oxygen needs two electrons.In the case of a water molecule, each of the two hydrogen atoms shares an electron pair with the oxygen atom such that hydrogen acquires a duplet configuration and oxygen an octet, resulting in the formation of two single covalent bonds.

Formation of Water molecule

Before Combination

Covalent Bond Examples

Electron Dot Structure

Covalent Bond Examples

After Combination

Covalent Bond Examples

5. Carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)

Covalent Bond Examples

6. Ethyne (C2H2) Covalent Bond Examples

7. Ethene (C2H4)Covalent Bond Examples

8. Carbon dioxide(CO2)Covalent Bond Examples

 

This is whole about the article Covalent Bond Examples.

If you like feel free to share with others.

1 thought on “Covalent Bond Examples”

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *