At the end of the article, you will understand – Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bond Examples with List. Let’s start discussing one by one.
A chemical bond that is formed between combining atoms by mutual sharing of one or pairs of electrons is called a Covalent bond. The compound formed due to this bond is called a covalent compound.
- Nonpolar Covalent Bond- In nonpolar bond both atoms have the same electronegativity.
- Polar Covalent Bond -Both atoms have large E.N difference.
Condition for formation of the Covalent Bond
- Both atoms should have four or more electrons in their outermost Shells, i.e., non-metals (exceptions are H. Be B, Al, etc.).
- Both the atoms should have high electron affinity.
- Both the atoms should have high ionization energy.
- The participating atoms should have high electronegativity (may or may not similar).
- Non-metal combines with another non-metal.
These are the necessary conditions for bond formation. Before going for examples one must know the condition of the bond.
Covalent Bond Examples
The atoms of non-metals usually have 5, 6 or 7 electrons in their outermost shell (except carbon which has 4 and hydrogen which has just 1 electron in the Outermost shell). The atoms of such elements do not favor the loss of its electrons due to high energy considerations and thus the transfer of electrons is not possible. Therefore, atoms can complete its octet by mutually sharing one or more pairs of electrons. Each atom contributes an equal number of electrons. So, whenever non-metal combines with another non-metal, the sharing of electrons take place between the atoms and a covalent bond is form. The above explanation is applicable to Polar and nonpolar or all types of covalent bond examples.
Must Read: Ionic Bond Examples.
Hydrogen Molecule (H2)
A hydrogen atom has one electron in its only shell. It needs one more electron to attain duplet. To meet this need, hydrogen atom shares its electron with another hydrogen atom. Thus, one electron each is contributed by the two atoms of hydrogen, and the resulting pair of electrons is mutually shared by both the atoms to form a hydrogen molecule. It should be noticed that both atoms of the same electronegativity thus, it is one of the nonpolar covalent bond examples.
[A Hydrogen molecule contains two atoms of hydrogen]
It is also a Nonpolar molecule. In this case both the chlorine atoms that is equals to (atomic no 17) have 7 valence electron and a short of one electron each. They share one electron pair which is an electron is contributed by both the atoms to achieve nearest noble gas configuration.
- Atomic Number = 7
- Electronic Configuration= 2,5
- Number of electrons required to Complete octet = 3
- Bond =Triple Covalent Bond.
Two Nitrogen atoms combine together by the sharing of electrons to form a nitrogen molecule (N2) and a covalent bond is formed between the two nitrogen atoms with a triple bond. This is the best to explain triple covalent bond examples.
The below diagram showing an example of a polar covalent bond. To attain the stable electronic configuration of the nearest noble gas, hydrogen needs one electron and oxygen needs two electrons. In the case of a water molecule, each of the two hydrogen atoms shares an electron pair with the oxygen atom such that hydrogen acquires a duplet configuration and oxygen an octet, resulting in the formation of two single covalent bonds.
- Atomic Number of Carbon = 5
- Atomic Number of Chlorine = 17
- Electronic Configuration of Carbon = 2,5
- Electronic Configuration of Chlorine = 2,5
- Number of electrons required to Complete octet Carbon = 4
- Number of electrons required to Complete octet (each) Chlorine = 1
- Bond =Single Covalent Bond.
Atoms can complete its octet by mutually sharing one or more pairs of electrons. Each atom contributes a number of electrons. So, whenever non-metal combines with another non-metal, the sharing of electrons take place between the atoms and a covalent bond is form.
7. Ethene (C2H4)
8. Carbon dioxide(CO2)
Carbon is a non-metal and chlorine is also a non-metal. When carbon combines with two oxygen to form Carbon dioxide (CO2) sharing of electrons takes place between Carbon and oxygen atoms and a covalent bond is formed. This can be taken as one from the examples of a polar covalent bond.
Covalent Bond Examples List
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