At the end of the article, you will be able to define and describe What is Chemical Bonding – Definition, Types of Chemical Bonding, Ionic (Electrovalent), Covalent Bonding. Let’s start discussing one by one.
What is Chemical Bonding – Definition
Chemical bonding is an attractive force which keeps two atoms or ions together in a molecule. Whenever word bond to hear it means to tie something together and chemical means that is irreversible by the physical method. During Chemical bonding atoms attain stability in three different ways by losing or gaining electrons by sharing electrons.
During redistribution of electrons, a bond (force) of attraction develops between atoms, which binds them together to form molecules. This bond is known as the chemical bond.
The force of attraction acting between any two atoms, in a molecule, in a state to maintain stability. The attractive forces which hold various constituents (atoms, ions etc) together in different chemical species form chemical bonding.
Elements participate in chemical bonding decide as follow:
- Electropositive elements: – These are those atoms of element give up electrons easily, they have low ionization potentials.
- Electronegative elements: – Atoms of the element which gain electrons. They have the higher value of electronegativity.
- Few Elements have the little tendency to lose or gain electrons.
Types of Chemical Bonding
There are three methods in which atoms can achieve a bond and a stable configuration.
(1) The transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to the other to form an electrovalent (or ionic) bond.
(2) Sharing of one, two or three pairs of electrons between two atoms to form a covalent (or a molecular) bond.
(3) When the shared electron pairs are contributed by only one of the combining atoms, the bond formed is known as coordinate (or dative) bond.
(4) When electropositive and electropositive element combine. They form a Metallic bond.
Knowledge is in following subtopics:
- Ionic and Covalent Bond.
- Hydrogen Bonding.
- Coordination Bonding.
- Ionic Bond Examples.
- Covalent Bond Examples.
- Polar And Non-Polar Covalent Bonds.
- Metallic Bond With types.
Atoms combine to form a bond to achieve minimum energy and maximum stability. These are the two key factors that tell why atoms combine to form a chemical bond.If the atom does not have minimum energy then it will never have stability so the bond is not possible.
Ionic Bonding ( Electrovalent Bonding)
When electropositive (metal) and electronegative (non-metal) element combine. They form an Ionic bond (electrovalent bond).
Essential features of the theory of electronic valency, as proposed by Kossel and Lewis are summed up below.
- Bond formation involves only electrons of the outermost shell of atoms of an element. However, in transition elements electrons of (n – 1) d sub-shell also participate in chemical bonding.
- Every atom (except those of noble gases) has a tendency to acquire their nearest noble gas like configuration (i.e. 2 or 8 electrons) in the outermost shell. Actually, this tendency is responsible for the chemical reactivity of the elements.
- Atom can acquire noble gas like configuration by losing, gaining or sharing of electrons with other atoms.
- The number of electrons lost, gained or shared by an atom of an element is known as its valency.
- When high electronegative and electronegative element combine. They form a Covalent bond.
- -OR- When electropositive and electronegative element combine. They form a Covalent bond.
Atom is the smallest particle of an element which in most cases does not exist in the free state and has a tendency to combine with the atom(s) of other metal to form a molecule. This combined state of the atom is more stable than the free state.
When two atoms (similar or different) approach each other and combine to form a molecule, the resulting stable molecule always has less energy than the free atom(s) i.e. a combination of an atom (s) to form a stable molecule always leads to decrease in energy of the system. For example,
Thus note that
- Bond formation is an exothermic process.
- Bond formation between two atoms occurs only when there is an overall decrease in the energy of the system.
This is all about the basics of What is Chemical Bonding – Definition, Types of Chemical Bonding, Ionic (Electrovalent), Covalent Bonding.