Animal Cell – Cells are the basic unit of our life. They are of small size. An organism may be made up of one cell or more cells. These cells help us to carry out life activities. Energy is required for various metabolic activities like growth. New cells arise only from the pre-existing cells by the process of cell division.
What is Animal cell?
An animal cell is a Eukaryote. It states that the genetic material and other organelles of a cell of an organism lies within membranes.
Whether it’s a plant or an animal, cells are the basic structures they are composed of. That’s why cells are sometimes called the ‘building blocks of life. Although there are many, many different types of cells that all have different jobs to do, most cells have some things in common.
Parts of Animal Cell
All living things on earth, from the tiniest creatures to the tallest of trees, are made of microscopic parts called cells. A cell is considered as the structural and functional unit of living organisms. Most cells have three main parts.
- Cell membrane.
- Cytoplasm and
- a Nucleus.
Each of these main cell parts has a special and important function to do. Parts of the animal cell are as follows:
- Cell Membrane: The first is the cell Membrane. Surrounding the outside of the cell is the cell membrane.
- Cytoplasm: This cytoplasm is a gel-like liquid and is essentially salt and water. Various cell organelles and organic molecules remain suspended in it.
- Nucleus: In the center of the cell, we see the third most important part which is the nucleus.
- Nucleopore: The nucleus has a membrane that has pores in it these allow certain molecules to enter or leave the nucleus.
- Endoplasmic Reticulum: They’re like highways that provide a transportation network.
- Golgi complex: Golgi bodies are flat. Proteins and other materials are packaged and stored in the Golgi body.
- Lysosomes: They break down worn-out cell parts and gather waste products from the cell’s cytoplasm.
- Microtubules: They decide the Shape of the cell.
- Mitochondria: Mitochondria is called as the powerhouse of the cell.
- Ribosomes: These are the miniature protein factories.
- Nucleolus: It is present in the nucleus.
- Centrioles: Plays role in cell division.
Animal Cell Structure
There are many kinds of animal and plant cells that have different architectures. They are able to do different things. But many of the parts of these cells are the same and have the same functions. If we created a typical animal cell it might look something like an egg. Even though no specific animal cell looks exactly like an egg. It contains features shared by most such cells.
Animal Cell Membrane
The function of a cell membrane is done by a lipid bilayer membrane with proteins embedded in it. These proteins help in the movement of materials into and out of the cell. Oxygen is used by the cell as a burning fuel. Other things pass out of the cell through the membrane including waste like carbon dioxide gas and important chemical products that the cell has manufactured.
- A cell membrane is very thin only about 1/1000 of a millimeter thick.
- A photograph of a cell membrane taken with the help of an electron microscope reveals that it has three layers. Two dark outer layers sandwiching a clear middle layer.
- The cell membrane acts as a boundary between a cell and the environment outside.
- Inside the cell membrane, there are many different structures called organelles which literally means little organs.
- The second important part of the cell which is the cytoplasm.
- The cytoplasm is composed of water minerals vitamins salts a variety of chemicals as well as different organelles.
- Inside the cell, there are organelles which are suspended in the cytoplasm.
- It is one organelle the nucleus is the control center of the cell.
- A nucleus is separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear membrane with surrounds and protects.
- If we sneak a quick look inside the nucleus. We can see a large quantity of intertwined material which looks like a group of a thread.
- Mitochondria are another kind of organelle present in the cytoplasm.
- Inside a mitochondrion, there are highly folded membranes.
- The number of mitochondria varies in different kinds of cells. As an Example, very active cells like muscle cells contain thousands of mitochondria.
- The endoplasmic reticulum lies just outside of the nuclear envelope and is made up of a number of tubules and sacs called cisternae.
- These cisternae are made up of phospholipid membranes and these membranes separate the internal compartment of the endoplasmic reticulum called the lumen from the cytosol of the cell.
- The membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum and the membrane of the nuclear envelope are continuous with each other. As a result, the inter-membranous space between the membranes of the envelope is also continuous with the lumen of the ER.
- The ER has divided into two different sections the smooth ER and the rough ER.
- Ribosomes are small protein factors found in cells. They are located in the cytoplasm and on the edge of ER.
- If you the diagram carefully, the small dots on the ER and present in the cytoplasm are ribosomes.
- A ribosome makes a protein in the cytoplasm. DNA is transcribed to RNA. The ribosome reads this RNA in triplets and the correct amino acids are put together to create the protein.
- Lysosomes are also the garbage disposal units of the cell.
- They are membrane-bound vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes.
- These contain chemicals called enzymes that digest small food particles that have passed into the cell.
- An animal cell contains additional structures called vacuoles. These are those which are part of the endomembrane system
- Vacuoles are usually found in plant and fungal cells but they can also be found in animal cells. When they are found in animal cells they typically assist in endocytosis and exocytosis.
- Another kind of organelle the Golgi bodies are the cells packaging centers.
- In Golgi bodies, proteins are mixed with other chemicals and enclosed in bubbly containers that then break away and move to the cell membrane where their contents are released from the cell.
Cilia And Flagella
- Cilia and Flagella both have the same arrangement of microtubules composing their acts animal cytoskeletons.
- Their only difference is that of length with flagella being much longer than cilia.
- One can see in a Paramecium that cells which possess cilia. Many of these and they can contract in unison to create patterns of motion.
- There are a number of microorganisms which possess flagella as these Euglena do.
Function of Animal Cell (Organelle Functions)
Organelle plays a vital role in development and function of the cell. Let’s discuss the animal cell organelle functions one by one.
Nucleus – The most prominent one is the nucleus. Inside the nucleus, there is a fiber-like material called chromosomes. These chromosomes contain the cell’s genetic information. This genetic information is like an architect’s blueprint (determines how wood glass and other materials are used to build a house). The genetic blueprint in a person’s chromosomes determines how different proteins are put together. These proteins are responsible for physical features such as the color of a person’s hair and eyes, the shape of the nose, and even whether she is susceptible to certain kinds of diseases. The information contained in the chromosome blueprints the nucleus sends messages to the cell’s cytoplasm which makes up everything else that is inside the cell.
Mitochondria – Eukaryotic cells ATP synthesis occurs in mitochondria. A mitochondrion is a sac within a sac. The inner sac is folded increasing surface area for ATP synthesis. Between the inner and outer membranes, there is the inter-membrane space. It is a reservoir for hydrogen ions used for synthesizing ATP from ADP. The inner chamber is known as the matrix. Simply say, a mitochondrion is an energy transformer where energy and fuel molecules (such as pyruvic acid) is transferred to ATP. Mitochondria are often called the powerhouses of the cell because they are responsible for providing for the cell’s energy needs.
Endoplasmic Reticulum – ER is categorized into two: Smooth ER and Rough ER. The smooth ER shown here is responsible for synthesizing lipids, metabolizing carbohydrates, and detoxifying drugs and poisons. The rough ER is responsible to synthesize(make) cellular membranes and modify proteins that are going to be secreted from the cell.
Lysosomes – Lysosomes are important cell organelles. As they are a kind of waste disposal system of the cell. They have filled with powerful digestive enzymes with digests anything unnecessary inside cells foreign objects like bacteria and even other worn-out organelles and turn them into simpler substances. So that those can be reused. When a cell gets damaged the lysosome may burst and its enzymes digest the whole cell that’s why lysosome is called the suicide bag.
Golgi body or Golgi apparatus – Golgi body acts mainly as a transport manager. Protein-lipid produced in the endoplasmic reticulum is transported through small vesicles. The vesicle is like a bubble full of fluid. This kind of vesicles is used to transport substances inside the cell. Golgi body or the Golgi apparatus receives whatever is produced in endoplasmic reticulum through vesicles. Then it modifies them if necessary and marks their destination. Then again it packages them in vesicles and dispatches them to the destination. So, indeed a Golgi body is a super transport manager.
This is whole about the basic of Animal Cell – Parts, Structure, Organelle Functions of Animal Cell.