Normal rain is slightly acidic when atmospheric carbon dioxide dissolution in water.Under ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure, the gases are only slightly soluble in water.So, acid rain effects are very limited.The pH of the normal rainwater varies from 5.6 to 6.0.This does not lead to causes of acid rain.
Causes of Acid Rain
One must understand the causes of acid rain before controlling the acid rain effects.In populated industrialized areas, oxides of nitrogen and sulfur formed. Both of them dissolve in water to form nitric acid and sulphuric acid,
- NO + O3→ NO2 + O2
- 2NO2 + 2NO2→ 2N O3 + O3
- NO2 + NO3→ N2O5
- N2O5 + H2O → 2HNO3 (nitric acid)
- SO2+1/2O2→SO3+H2O→H2SO4 (Sulphuric Acid)
The presence of soot (carbon) particles in air speeds up the oxidation process. The acids are highly soluble in water. In addition, vapors of hydrogen chloride gas are also being released into the atmosphere.This results of the chemical reactions that are undergoing in the factories and industrial establishments. All these are likely to make the rainwater sufficiently acidic with pH varying from 3 to 4.5. This rain has been given a special name called acid rain.
Harmful Acid Rain Effects
There are many effects of acid rain.The main harmful acid rain effects present in the rain areas are as follow:
1. Statues and structures made up of marble and limestone (CaCO3) are slowly corroded the rainwater containing the acids falls on them. Actually, both sulphuric acid and nitric acid dissolve calcium carbonate to form calcium sulfate and calcium nitrate respectively.
CaCO3 + H2SO4 → CaSO4 + CO2 + H2O
CaCO3 + 2HNO3→ Ca(NO3)2 + CO2 + H2O
Since these salts are water soluble, they are slowly washed away resulting in slow corrosion of these monuments and structures. We are quite conscious to the harm that is being done by the acid rain to Taj Mahal which is regarded as the eighth wonder. In addition to the acid rain, even traces of hydrogen sulfide gas present in the air has a role in the deterioration of the historical monuments since it blackens them.
Read Must: Effect of Pollution
Effects of Acid Rain on Diversity
2. Acid rain washes a number of essential minerals from the soil.This leads latter depleted of these minerals is not good enough for the growth of the plants. In addition, the acid present in rainwater dissolves metals like nickel, lead, aluminum etc. from their mineral and the corresponding salts are very harmful to the vegetation life.
3. The effect of acid rain also damages leaves of plants and trees and retard the growth of forests. The forests are the main reason for our existence.The forest deterioration has already taken place in various regions of the world because of acid rain effects.
4. Acid rain has an adverse effect on aquatic life, particularly in lakes. The acids dissolve the heavy metals such as aluminum, lead, zinc, mercury etc. that are present on the lake bed. These metal salts are extremely harmful to fish and other animals living under water. Even the plants that grow all along the lakes are also destroyed.
5. Articles made up of metals, gold, and silver ornaments also slowly lose their luster.
Control Acid Rain Effects
The government of many countries has taken this issue very serious to minimize the acid rain effects. Efforts are on to save the most prestigious monument that we have.Even our courts have intervened in this matter. Instructions have been issued to keep the air in the ‘Taj’ Trapezium ( an area comprising cities of Agra, Firozabad, Mathura, and Bharatpur) free from pollution.
It has been made mandatory for all industries which fall in this region to use LPG and CNG (compressed natural gas) as the fuels in place of traditional coal and oil. A regular supply of the cooking gas has been ensured through pipelines. This is what government has done. Now, it becomes the most religious and sincere duty of all those living in this region to understand the acid rain effects and do their best to save this monument and other historical monuments which fall in the region from pollution since they bring pride to all of us.
This is whole about the Acid Rain Effects
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